Reference values for right ventricular systolic function in the form of z-scores of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Data are from 640 patients, aged 1 day to 18 years, as described by investigators in Graz, Austria. TAPSE was measured by "2-dimensional echocardiography–guided M-mode recordings from the apical 4-chamber view, with the cursor placed at the free wall of the tricuspid annulus."
Right Ventricular Function in Infants, Children and
Adolescents: Reference Values of the Tricuspid
Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) in 640
Healthy Patients and Calculation of z Score Values.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009 Jun;22(6):715-9. Epub 2009 May 7.